PSY 403/603 QUIZ 1 Name: ____________________________
The quiz is broken down into 4 sections: multiple choice, fill in the blanks, labeling diagrams and short answer questions. There are also extra credit questions at the end of the quiz. Read the directions for each section carefully before proceeding.
25 questions, 2 points each, 50 points total
Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
1) What determines whether a post-synaptic potential (PSP) is excitatory or inhibitory?
a) the neurotransmitters
b) the pre-synaptic membrane
c) the post-synaptic receptor x
d) the will of God
2) Astrocytes are a type of glial cell that perform all of the following functions except:
a) provide physical support to neurons of the central nervous system
b) engulf dead cell tissue using phagocytosis
c) protect the brain from invading microorganisms x
d) provide nutrients and other substances
3) The most common sequence in which information is passed between neurons is in the order:
a) axon terminal—dendrite—synapse—soma
b) soma—dendrite—axon terminal—synapse
c) dendrite—soma—axon terminal—synapse x
d) synapse—axon terminal—soma—dendrite
4) Movements of the membrane potential in a more negative direction are termed:
a) sodium transport
d) hyperpolarizations x
5) Sodium-potassium transporters keep the intracellular concentration of
a) Na+ high
b) Na+ low x
c) Cl- high
d) K+ low
6) Membrane receptors that directly open an ion channel are termed:
b) Ionotropic x
7) Hydroencephalus is defined as:
a) spinal cord punctures
b) an extreme loss of cerebrospinal fluid
c) enlarged ventricles in the brain
d) a buildup of cerebrospinal fluid in the brain x
8) The programmed cell death important in development, whereby regeneration of cells would defeat the point, is called:
b) Senescence x
c) Prader-Willi Syndrome
9) The outside and inside of a cell are _________________ and ______________ charged, respectively:
a) positively, negatively x
b) negatively, positively
c) negatively, negatively
d) positively, positively
10) A chemical produced when a G protein activates an enzyme is called:
c) second messenger x
11) The membrane of a neural cell consists of:
a) a layer of ions
b) A mitochondrial trilayer
c) a lipid bilayer x
d) mostly phosphoric acid and DNA
12) A deficit in the understanding of speech is often associated with:
a) Broca’s area
b) Tan’s aphasia
c) The sclerotic plaque
d) Wernicke’s area x
13) The notion that bumps on the skull indicate developed skills associated with regions of the cortex is called:
a) Broca’s Aphasia
b) Phrenology x
c) Associative Agnosia
d) The Coolidge Effect
14) Which of the following is NOT one of the four approaches to Physiological psychology discussed in the first lecture:
d) Structural x
15) Who demonstrated contralateralization in a study stimulating a dog cortex:
a) Fritsh and Hitzig x
b) Luigi Galvani
d) Johannes Muller
16) The small, spherical structures found in terminal buttons that contain molecules of a neurotransmitter are called:
b) second messengers
c) G proteins
d) Synaptic vesicles x
17) _____________________ is accomplished by an enzyme that destroys molecules of the neurotransmitter.
a) Enzymatic Deactivation x
b) Neural Integration
d) Presynaptic inhibition
18) The type of cell that contains receptors for a particular hormone and is affected by that hormone is called:
a) a neuromodulator
b) a target cell x
c) a peptide
d) an autoreceptor
19) Presynaptic facilitation…
a) reduces the amount of neurotransmitter released by the presynaptic terminal button
b) liberates secretions into the extracellular fluid around capillaries and into the bloodstream
c) increases the amount of neurotransmitter released by the presynaptic terminal button x
d) facilitates the movement of an action potential along an unmyelinated axon
20) Small grooves in the cortex are called:
c) Sulci x
d) Brodmann’s areas
21) The ____________________ keeps components of the nucleus inside the nucleus
b) Endoplasmic Reticulum
c) Nuclear envelope x
22) Nerves conduct ____________________ signals.
d) electrochemical x
23) Electrical disturbances of membrane potentials can be carried along the membrane and
a) degrade with time and distance x
b) stay the same with time and distance
c) increase in strength with time and distance
d) increase in strength with time, but not distance
24) All of the following are properties of an action potential except….
a) It is an all or none event
b) It has a fixed velocity and amplitude
c) It is actively propagated from the button to the cell body via the axon x
d) It is a property of the membrane
25) During an action potential, if the resting membrane potential moves past the threshold of excitation, the membrane quickly moves to ________ mV and then returns to resting.
d) +40 x
FILL IN THE BLANKS
10 blanks 1 point each, 10 points total
Fill in the blanks with the most appropriate word from your readings or lectures.
1) _____________ is the belief that mind and body are separate, and ______________ is the belief that the mind is a phenomenon produced by the workings of the nervous system. (Dualism and Monism)
2) _________________ is a belief that characteristics of living organisms perform useful functions. (functionalism)
3) ______________________ produce myelin in the CNS, while _______________ produce myelin in the PNS. (oligodendrocytes, schwann cells)
4) In a _________________neuron, the somatic membrane gives rise to one axon and one dendritic tree, at opposite ends of the soma. (bipolar)
5) The _________________________________ is the name given to the voltage level that elicits an actions potential. (threshold of excitation)
6) The reentry of a neurotransmitter just released by a terminal button back through its membrane is called ___________________. (reuptake)
7) The outermost layer of the meninges is called the ___________________ (dura-mater)
8) The ________________ lobe contains the primary visual cortex (occipital)
10 questions, 2 points each, 20 points total
Label the diagram below on the blank lines, and answer the questions associated with it.
1) Label the parts of the neuron on the blank lines provided. Hint: If this neuron has schwann cells, it means it is a neuron in the __ __ __. (2 points)
2) Draw arrows to indicate the direction of messages from one end of the neuron to the other. (2 points) from dendrites to terminal buttons
Answer: From top down: dendrites, nucleus, myelin sheath, node of Ranvier, axon, terminal buttons.
5 questions, 4 points each, 20 points total
Read each question carefully and answer as best you can. For some questions, you may find it easier to draw and label a diagram, or you may prefer to write out the answer in a short paragraph.
1) Describe the movements of ions during an actions potential, starting with the
reaching of the threshold of excitation. You may opt, instead of the short answer, to
draw and label a diagram. If you need more space, use the back of the test.
The threshold of excitation is reached, Na+ channels open and Na+ ions enter
the cell. K+ channels open and K+ begins to leave the cell. Na+ channels
become refractory and no more Na+ enters the cell. K+ continues to leave the
cell, causing membrane potential to return to resting level. K+ channels close,
Na+ channels reset. Extra K+ outside diffuses away.
3) Define the following terms (1 point each)
a) Neurotransmitter: A chemical that is released by a terminal button; has an excitatory or an inhibitory effect on another neuron.
b) Membrane Potential: The electrical charge across a cell membrane; the difference in electrical potential inside and outside the cell.
c) Saltatory Conduction: Conduction of action potentials by myelinated axons. The action potential appears to jump from one Node of Ranvier to the next.
d) Ligand: A chemical that binds with the binding site of a receptor.
4) Describe and compare the two methods by which neurotransmitters open ion channels: the direct and indirect methods.
Direct method: An ionotropic receptor that contains a binding site for a neurotransmitter and an ion channel opens when a molecule of the neurotransmitter attaches to the binding site.
Indirect method: Metabotropic receptors that contain a binding site for a neurotransmitter activates an enzyme that begins a series of events that opens an ion channel elsewhere in the membrane of the cell when a molecule of the neurotransmitter attaches to the binding site. The binding activates a G protein which activates an enzyme that stimulates production of a second messenger, whose molecules travel through the cytoplasm, attach themselves to nearby ion channels, and cause them to open. These potentials take longer to begin and last longer than those produced by ionotropic receptors.
5) From what you learned in the video viewed in class, discuss the effects of both radiation and alcohol on a fetus in the critical phase of development.
Fetuses exposed to radiation in the critical phase of development of 8-16 weeks showed mental retardation 80-100% of the time. For those exposed to alcohol, the damage depended on the amount of alcohol consumed and the frequency. Damage from alcohol was shown in both the brain and the face, with retardation ranging from mild to severe, lack of brain development, enlarged ventricles, and facial asymmetry. (answers may vary)
6) Define and describe neural integration. You may draw a diagram if you prefer.
The process by which inhibitory and excitatory postsynaptic potentials summate and control the rate of firing of a neuron.
a) the activity of excitatory synapses produce EPSPs in postsynaptic neuron
b) axon hillock reaches threshold of excitation; action potential is triggered in axon.
c) Activity of inhibitory synapses produces IPSPs in postsynaptic neuron
d) IPSPs counteract EPSPs; They summate, and action potential is not triggered in axon.
Answer the questions to the best of your ability. Each one only requires one or two sentences. 3 questions, 2 points each, 6 points total.
1) What mainly happens to a person suffering from Multiple Sclerosis? Why was the disease given that name?
The immune system attacks myelin sheaths in a particular region in the brain, and glial cells clean up the debris. Axons can no longer conduct messages effectively, if at all. The name comes from multiple lesions, or sclerotic plaques, that form throughout the brain and spinal cord.
2) In Chapter 2 of your book, Kathy D. was suffering from unresponsive
muscles that led her to extreme fatigue. What was the name of her
3) Johannes Muller came up with the Doctrine of Specific Nerve Energies. What was the conclusion of his Doctrine?
Because all nerve fibers carry the same type of message, sensory
information must be specified by the particular nerve fibers that are