Tropical Biology, Spring Semester, 2010

 

INSTRUCTOR:

Dr. Lee Dyer

ecodyer@gmail.com

 

OFFICE HOURS:

Thursday 230-400PM (or by appointment); FA 141

 

TENTATIVE LECTURE SCHEDULE:

 

 

 

Date

 

Topic

 

Readings

 

 

January 18

 

Introduction to the course

 

Dyer et al. 2007

Stork 2007

 Novotny et al. 2007

 

January 20

 

Introduction to tropical research

 

January 25

 

Introduction to Ecology and Evolutionary Biology

 Hay et al. 2004

Oksanen 1988

 

January 27

 

Introduction to Ecology and Evolutionary Biology

Mittelbach et al. 2007

QUIZ 1 

 

February 1

 

Tropical life zones

Powell et al. 2000

Olson et al. 2001

Yates et al. 2000

 

February 3

 

Discussion of papers

 

 

February 8

 

8 representative sites

 

8 sites

 

February 10

 

The rainforest and how it functions

 

Leigh 2009

Jetz et al. 2009

Novotny et al. 2010

 

February 15

to

February 22

 

The rainforest and how it functions

 

Wright 2005

 

Chave 2009

 

QUIZ 2 

 

February 24

 

Evolution in the tropics: biodiversity

 

Dobzhansky 1950

Hewitt 2004

Archibald et al. 2010

 

 

March 1

 

Diversity; the origins of neutral theory

 

Hubbell et al. 1999 

Schnitzer et al. 2009 

 

 

March 3

 

Exam 1 (100 points)

 

REVIEW

 

March 8

 

Tropical plants: Introduction

 

http://tolweb.org/tree/phylogeny.html

 

Secondary Forest Trees in Ecuador

 

Webb et al. 2009

 

 

March 10

 

Tropical plant compounds and Bioprospecting

 

Dyer et al. 2004

Kursar et al. 2009

 

March 22-24

 

Plant-Animal Interactions

 

Dyer 2009

 

March 29

 

Plant-Animal Interactions

 

Gorelick 2001

 

 

March 31

 

Tropical birds and mammals

 

 Van Bael and Brawn 2005

 

Amori et al. 2010

 

April 5

 

Tropical fish, amphibians and reptiles

 Smith et al. 2005

Poulin 2001

http://tolweb.org/tree/phylogeny.html

 

 

April 7

 

Exam 2 (100 points)

 

EXAM 2 REVIEW 

 

April 12-14

 

Tropical insects: Biodiversity

ODowd et al. 2003

Craft et al. 2010

 

April 19

 

Tropical insects and humans: Agriculture and Malaria 

 

Carlson et al. 2009

Barbieri et al. 2005

 

 

April 19

 

Humans and the rainforest: cities, population growth, hunter-gatherer indigenous tribes, emerging infectious diseases

 

Holt 2005

 

Siges et al. 2005

Agosta et al. 2010

 

April 21

 

Humans and the rainforest: Bioprospecting

 

 

Kursar et al. 2009

 

 

April 26

Global environmental problems and the future of tropical ecosystems

Vitousek et al. 1997

 

 April 28

 Global environmental problems and the future of tropical ecosystems

and REVIEW

Laurance 2009

 

Corlett and Primack 2009

 

 May 3

Graduate Student Lectures

receive take home

 

MAY 6, 5pm, TAKE-HOME FINAL IS DUE

 

 

Selected References

 

Armbruster W.S. & Baldwin B.G. Switch from specialized to generalized pollination. Nature 394:632. 1998.

Blackburn, T. M. 2004. Method in macroecology. Basic and Applied Ecology 5:401-412.

Briskin, D. P. 2000. Medicinal plants and phytomedicines. Linking plant biochemistry and physiology to human health. Plant Physiology 124:507-514.

Coley, P. D. 1998. Possible effects of climate change on plant/herbivore interactions in moist tropical forests. Climate Change 39:315-328.

Cragg, G. M., M. R. Boyd, J. H. Cardellina II, D. J. Newman, K. M. Snader, and T. G. McCloud. 1994. Ethnobotany and drug discovery: the experience of the US National Cancer Institute. Pages 178-193 in Ethnobotany and the search for new drugs. John Wiley and Sons, New York.

Dyer, L. A., M. S. Singer, J. T. Lill, J. O. Stireman, G. L. Gentry, R. J. Marquis, R. E. Ricklefs, H. F. Greeney, D. L. WAGNER, H. C. Morais, I. R. Diniz, T. A. Kursar, and P. D. Coley. 2007. Host specificity of Lepidoptera in tropical and temperate forests. Nature 448:696-6U9.

Dyer, L. A., D. K. Letourneau, C. D. Dodson, M. A. Tobler, J. O. Stireman, and A. Hsu. 2004. Ecological causes and consequences of variation in defensive chemistry of a Neotropical shrub. Ecology 85:2795-2803.

Gilbert, L. E., and J. T. Smiley. 1978. Determinants of local diversity in phytophagous insects: host specialists in tropical environments. Pages 89-104 in L. A. Mound, and N. Waloff editors. Diversity of insect faunas. Blackwell, Oxford.

Gorelick, R. 2001. Did insect pollination cause increased seed plant diversity? Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 74:407-427.

Harrington, R., I. Woiwod, and T. Sparks. 1999. Climate change and trophic interactions. TREE 14:146-149.

Holdridge L. R., W. C. Grenke, W. H. Hatheway, T. Liang, and J. A. Tosi. 1971. Forest environments in tropical life zones. Pergamon, London.

Huston M. A. 1994. Biological Diversity. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Hay, M. E., J. D. Parker, D. E. Burkepile, C. C. Caudill, A. E. Wilson, Z. P. Hallinan, and A. D. Chequer. 2004. Mutualisms and aquatic community structure: The enemy of my enemy is my friend. Annual Review of Ecology Evolution and Systematics 35:175-197.

Mittelbach, G. G., D. W. Schemske, H. V. Cornell, A. P. Allen, J. M. Brown, M. B. Bush, S. P. Harrison, A. H. Hurlbert, N. Knowlton, H. A. Lessios, C. M. McCain, A. R. McCune, L. A. McDade, M. A. McPeek, T. J. Near, T. D. Price, R. E. Ricklefs, K. Roy, D. F. Sax, D. Schluter, J. M. Sobel, and M. Turelli. 2007. Evolution and the latitudinal diversity gradient: speciation, extinction and biogeography. Ecology Letters 10:315-331.

Novotny, V., Y. Basset, J. Auga, W. Boen, C. Dal, P. Drozd, M. Kasbal, B. Isua, R. Kutil, M. Manumbor, and K. Molem. 1999. Predation risk for herbivorous insects on tropical vegetation: A search for enemy-free space and time. Australian Journal of Ecology 24:477-483.

Oksanen, L. 1988. Ecosystem organization: mutualism and cybernetics or plain darwinian struggle for existence? American Naturalist 131:424-444.

Rahbek, C. 1997. The relationship among area, elevation, and regional species richness in neotropical birds. American Naturalist 149:875-902.

Rohde, K. 1992. Latitudinal gradients in species diversity: the search for the primary cause. Oikos 65:514-527.

Sevenet, T. 1997. Tropical plants and bioactive natural substances. Acta Botanica Gallica 144:449-462.

Singer, M. S., and J. O. Stireman. 2005. The tri-trophic niche concept and adaptive radiation of phytophagous insects. Ecology Letters 8:1247-1255.

Stireman, J. O., L. A. Dyer, D. H. Janzen, M. S. Singer, J. T. Li, R. J. Marquis, R. E. Ricklefs, G. L. Gentry, W. Hallwachs, P. D. Coley, J. A. Barone, H. F. Greeney, H. Connahs, P. Barbosa, H. C. Morais, and I. R. Diniz. 2005. Climatic unpredictability and parasitism of caterpillars: Implications of global warming. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 102:17384-17387.

Stork, N. E. 2007. Biodiversity - World of insects. Nature 448:657-658.

Terborgh, J. 1992. Maintenance of diversity in tropical forests. Biotropica 24:283-292.

Van Bael, S. A., and J. D. Brawn. 2005. The direct and indirect effects of insectivory by birds in two contrasting Neotropical forests (vol 143, pg 106, 2005). Oecologia 145:658-668.

Vitousek, P. M., H. A. Mooney, J. Lubchenco, and J. M. Melillo. 1997. Human domination of Earth's ecosystems. Science 277:494-499.

Wright, S. J. 2002. Plant diversity in tropical forests: a review of mechanisms of species coexistence. Oecologia 130:1-14.

Young A. M. 1982. Population biology of tropical insects. Plenum Press, New York.